Nextcloud

VPS快速完美部署ownCloud/Nextcloud全过程(1)

今天打算做一个完全部署ownCloud/Nextcloud的教程,将之前零散的教程集中起来。

VPS及外部环境

我这儿演示所用的VPS是Bandwagon的SPECIAL 20G PROMO V3 - LOS ANGELES - CHINA DIRECT ROUTE,机房直连大陆,下载和上传速度都比较可观。

系统使用Ubuntu 16.04,像Debian一类的系统也完全可以跟着本教程做,CentOS之类的就会有所不同了。

DNS解析

为了之后的SSL等配置,强烈建议解析一个域名到VPS上。

环境配置

使用SSH登陆VPS

更新软件源:

root@nosu:apt-get update

安装Apache:

root@nosu:apt-get install apache2 -y #安装apache
root@nosu:service apache2 start #启动apache

看到以上网页说明Apache运行正常。

安装PHP7

root@nosu:apt-get install php7.0 libapache2-mod-php7.0 php7.0-mbstring -y
root@nosu:service apache2 restart

写一个phpinfo文件进行测试:

root@nosu:cd /var/www/html
root@nosu:vim phpinfo.php

输入以下内容:

<?php phpinfo() ?>

或者干脆一点,一步创建phpinfo文件:

root@nosu:echo "<?php phpinfo() ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php

访问http://your.domain/phpinfo:

编辑Apache配置文件

重新组织一下目录结构,以便后期配置和维护

理想的目录结构为:

/cloudserver
|-- data #存放文件
|-- log #存放日志
`-- nextcloud #存放主程序
root@nosu:/# cd /
root@nosu:/# mkdir /cloudserver
root@nosu:/# cd cloudserver/
root@nosu:/cloudserver# mkdir log nextcloud data
root@nosu:/cloudserver# tree
.
|-- data
|-- log
`-- nextcloud

然后需要配置一下Apache的配置文件。主文件位于/etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf

root@nosu:vim /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf

有以下几个地方要修改:

第一行(修改主机名):

<VirtualHost *:80>
修改为:
<VirtualHost 你的域名:80>

第九行(修改主机名)

#ServerName www.example.com
修改为
ServerName 你的域名

第十一、十二行(网站根目录和管理员邮箱)

ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost #这个不改也罢
DocumentRoot /var/www/html
修改为
ServerAdmin 你的邮箱地址
DocumentRoot /cloudserver/nextcloud

第二十、十一行(日志文件位置)

ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
修改为
ErrorLog /cloudserver/log/error.log
CustomLog /cloudserver/log/access.log combined

最后再修改一下apache2.conf,文件位于/etc/apache2/apache2.conf,不修改的话会403报错

第164~168行

<Directory /var/www> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride None Require all granted
</Directory>
修改为
<Directory /cloudserver> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride None Require all granted
</Directory>

下面展示一下我的两个配置文件,作为示例以供参考

000-default.conf:

<VirtualHost cloud.nosu.win:80>	# The ServerName directive sets the request scheme, hostname and port that	# the server uses to identify itself. This is used when creating	# redirection URLs. In the context of virtual hosts, the ServerName	# specifies what hostname must appear in the request's Host: header to	# match this virtual host. For the default virtual host (this file) this	# value is not decisive as it is used as a last resort host regardless.	# However, you must set it for any further virtual host explicitly.	#ServerName www.example.com	ServerAdmin 666@orgleaf.com	DocumentRoot /cloudserver/nextcloud	# Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,	# error, crit, alert, emerg.	# It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular	# modules, e.g.	#LogLevel info ssl:warn	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined	# For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are	# enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to	# include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the	# following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only	# after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".	#Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf
</VirtualHost>
# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet

apache2.conf:

# This is the main Apache server configuration file. It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ for detailed information about
# the directives and /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian about Debian specific
# hints.
#
#
# Summary of how the Apache 2 configuration works in Debian:
# The Apache 2 web server configuration in Debian is quite different to
# upstream's suggested way to configure the web server. This is because Debian's
# default Apache2 installation attempts to make adding and removing modules,
# virtual hosts, and extra configuration directives as flexible as possible, in
# order to make automating the changes and administering the server as easy as
# possible.
# It is split into several files forming the configuration hierarchy outlined
# below, all located in the /etc/apache2/ directory:
#
#	/etc/apache2/
#	|-- apache2.conf
#	|	`-- ports.conf
#	|-- mods-enabled
#	|	|-- *.load
#	|	`-- *.conf
#	|-- conf-enabled
#	|	`-- *.conf
#	`-- sites-enabled
#	`-- *.conf
#
#
# * apache2.conf is the main configuration file (this file). It puts the pieces
# together by including all remaining configuration files when starting up the
# web server.
#
# * ports.conf is always included from the main configuration file. It is
# supposed to determine listening ports for incoming connections which can be
# customized anytime.
#
# * Configuration files in the mods-enabled/, conf-enabled/ and sites-enabled/
# directories contain particular configuration snippets which manage modules,
# global configuration fragments, or virtual host configurations,
# respectively.
#
# They are activated by symlinking available configuration files from their
# respective *-available/ counterparts. These should be managed by using our
# helpers a2enmod/a2dismod, a2ensite/a2dissite and a2enconf/a2disconf. See
# their respective man pages for detailed information.
#
# * The binary is called apache2. Due to the use of environment variables, in
# the default configuration, apache2 needs to be started/stopped with
# /etc/init.d/apache2 or apache2ctl. Calling /usr/bin/apache2 directly will not
# work with the default configuration.
# Global configuration
#
#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# NOTE! If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
# mounted filesystem then please read the Mutex documentation (available
# at <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#mutex>);
# you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
#
# Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
#
#ServerRoot "/etc/apache2"
#
# The accept serialization lock file MUST BE STORED ON A LOCAL DISK.
#
Mutex file:${APACHE_LOCK_DIR} default
#
# PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
# identification number when it starts.
# This needs to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars
#
PidFile ${APACHE_PID_FILE}
#
# Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
#
Timeout 300
#
# KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
# one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
#
KeepAlive On
#
# MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
# during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
# We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
#
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
#
# KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
# same client on the same connection.
#
KeepAliveTimeout 5
# These need to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars
User ${APACHE_RUN_USER}
Group ${APACHE_RUN_GROUP}
#
# HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
# e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
# The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
# had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
# each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
# nameserver.
#
HostnameLookups Off
# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here. If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
#
# LogLevel: Control the severity of messages logged to the error_log.
# Available values: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
# error, crit, alert, emerg.
# It is also possible to configure the log level for particular modules, e.g.
# "LogLevel info ssl:warn"
#
LogLevel warn
# Include module configuration:
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.load
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.conf
# Include list of ports to listen on
Include ports.conf
# Sets the default security model of the Apache2 HTTPD server. It does
# not allow access to the root filesystem outside of /usr/share and /var/www.
# The former is used by web applications packaged in Debian,
# the latter may be used for local directories served by the web server. If
# your system is serving content from a sub-directory in /srv you must allow
# access here, or in any related virtual host.
<Directory />	Options FollowSymLinks	AllowOverride None	Require all denied
</Directory>
<Directory /usr/share>	AllowOverride None	Require all granted
</Directory>
<Directory /cloudserver>	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks	AllowOverride None	Require all granted
</Directory>
#<Directory /srv/>
#	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#	AllowOverride None
#	Require all granted
#</Directory>
# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
# for additional configuration directives. See also the AllowOverride
# directive.
#
AccessFileName .htaccess
#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
# viewed by Web clients.
#
<FilesMatch "^\.ht">	Require all denied
</FilesMatch>
#
# The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
# a CustomLog directive.
#
# These deviate from the Common Log Format definitions in that they use %O
# (the actual bytes sent including headers) instead of %b (the size of the
# requested file), because the latter makes it impossible to detect partial
# requests.
#
# Note that the use of %{X-Forwarded-For}i instead of %h is not recommended.
# Use mod_remoteip instead.
#
LogFormat "%v:%p %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vhost_combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent
# Include of directories ignores editors' and dpkg's backup files,
# see README.Debian for details.
# Include generic snippets of statements
IncludeOptional conf-enabled/*.conf
# Include the virtual host configurations:
IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf
# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet

 

重启Apache:

root@nosu:/etc/apache2# service apache2 start

安装MySQL

root@nosu:~# apt-get install mysql-server

安装过程中按照提示设置密码

安装php-mysql扩展:

root@nosu:~# apt-get install php7.0-mysql
root@nosu:~# service apache2 restart

配置数据库

有两种配置数据库的方法,前者较省事,后者相对麻烦些但是比较直观易操作。

方法1:使用SQL命令配置数据库

#登录mysql
mysql -u root -p
#创建名为nextcloud的数据库
mysql> CREATE DATABASE nextcloud;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
#切换数据库
mysql> USE nextcloud
Database changed
#创建名为nextcloud的用户,密码为password,并赋予相关权限
mysql> GRANT All ON nextcloud.* TO nextcloud@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
#登出mysql
mysql> exit
Bye

方法2:使用phpMyAdmin配置数据库

下载phpMyAdmin

root@nosu:~# cd /cloudserver/
root@nosu:/cloudserver# cd nextcloud/
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# ls
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# wget https://files.phpmyadmin.net/phpMyAdmin/4.7.0/phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages.zip
--2017-04-09 01:03:22-- https://files.phpmyadmin.net/phpMyAdmin/4.7.0/phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages.zip
Resolving files.phpmyadmin.net (files.phpmyadmin.net)... 185.180.13.17
Connecting to files.phpmyadmin.net (files.phpmyadmin.net)|185.180.13.17|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 14150287 (13M) [application/zip]
Saving to: 'phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages.zip'
phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-langu 100%[=====================================>] 13.49M 48.8MB/s in 0.3s
2017-04-09 01:03:23 (48.8 MB/s) - 'phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages.zip' saved [14150287/14150287]
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# unzip phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages.zip
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# mv phpMyAdmin-4.7.0-all-languages admin 

访问http://你的域名/admin,输入MySQL用户名(root)和之前设置的密码,点击“执行”登录。

创建一个用户以及同名数据库

完成创建后,一定要将phpMyAdmin整个删除。

安装Nextcloud

清理安装目录:

root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# rm * -Rf

下载、解压Nextcloud

root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-11.0.2.zip
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# unzip nextcloud-11.0.2.zip

删除源安装包、移动文件:

root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# ls
nextcloud nextcloud-11.0.2.zip
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# rm nextcloud-11.0.2.zip
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# ls
nextcloud
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# mv nextcloud/* ../nextcloud/
root@nosu:/cloudserver/nextcloud# rm nextcloud/ -Rf

访问http://你的域名/

如果你使用的是Nextcloud12.0.0以上版本,可能会出现503错误(权限问题)。无须担心,继续下面的步骤即可

文件夹权限设置

复制以下内容

#!/bin/bash
ocpath='/cloudserver/nextcloud'
htuser='www-data'
htgroup='www-data'
rootuser='root'
printf "Creating possible missing Directories\n"
mkdir -p $ocpath/data
mkdir -p $ocpath/assets
mkdir -p $ocpath/updater
printf "chmod Files and Directories\n"
find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
printf "chown Directories\n"
chown -R ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/assets/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/themes/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/updater/
chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ
printf "chmod/chown .htaccess\n"
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ] then chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
fi
if [ -f ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess ] then chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
fi

创建一个文件(位置随意)并把以上内容粘贴进去

root@nosu:/# vim set.sh
root@nosu:/# chmod +x set.sh #赋予可执行权限

执行:

root@nosu:/# ./set.sh
Creating possible missing Directories
chmod Files and Directories
chown Directories
chmod/chown .htaccess

另外还要对我自己添加data目录授予权限

root@nosu:/# chmod 770 /cloudserver/data/ -Rf
root@nosu:/# chown www-data /cloudserver/data/ -Rf
root@nosu:/# chown :www-data /cloudserver/data/ -Rf

安装缺失的php扩展

刷新网页后,提示有模块未安装。对未安装的php扩展予以安装

root@nosu:/# apt-get install php7.0-zip php7.0-dom php7.0-xml php7.0-gd php7.0-curl php7.0-mysql
root@nosu:/# service apache2 restart

输入信息后安装

这儿其实是最简单但也很有可能出错的地方,主要是两个地方:数据目录和数据库配置。数据目录要填写绝对目录,最后不带“/”,而且要保证这个目录至少拥有750权限、用户名和组为www-data。数据库这要填写之前使用phpMyAdmin所设置的用户名和数据库。

 

继续浏览:VPS快速完美部署ownCloud/Nextcloud全过程(2)

  • https配置
  • 隐藏url中的index.php
  • memcached配置
(7)

本文由 橙叶博客 作者:FrankGreg 发表,转载请注明来源!

热评文章

评论:

20 条评论,访客:20 条,博主:0 条
  1. 惠朝阳
    惠朝阳发布于: 

    我不知道,有没有关于nextcloud的Api调用的教程

  2. omaga
    omaga发布于: 

    使用那个修改权限的脚本后什么命令都无法用了,而且退出重登就再也登不上了。

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      可以告诉我具体的操作过程吗,这个问题出现过,我还没法复现.

  3. StarORC
    StarORC发布于: 

    请问:
    503错误后,文件夹权限设置脚本中
    find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
    find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
    这两句是取消文件和文件夹的其他账户读取权限吧?是否有必要?

    printf “chown Directories\n” 这一段单独对个文件夹设置用户权限,
    和官方安装文档中的 chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud/ 有什么好处呢?

    谢谢!!!

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      从安全的角度是权限范围越小越好,所以说还是有一定道理的的。
      官方文档中的只是为了方便

  4. 孙梓洋
    孙梓洋发布于: 

    移动文件的那一步,.htaccess文件和.user.ini没有移,没有问题嘛?我装完会说缺少文件

  5. 孙梓洋
    孙梓洋发布于: 

    哇,我怎么运行完那个set.sh脚本以后,跳出的语句后面都是permission denied,然后几乎所有的命令都是permission denied,凉凉。然后,想要重连一下,连ssh都炸了,远程连接显示/bin/bash:Permission denied,然后就断了。这是怎么回事啊,真的恐怖。

    • 孙梓洋
      孙梓洋发布于: 

      哦,是我傻了,xshell不知为何直接复制进去会缺少第一行和第二行的第一个字母,难受啊。

  6. app
    app发布于: 

    hi,我又来研究这一篇了,按你说的,建了个AWS EC2,走到输入ip能看到nextcloud界面这一步了,但是我在万网的域名怎么解析不到这个ip呢?翻墙域名就管用,墙内就不行,只能用AWS的DNS写的一长串二级域名。是不是我得重新找个地方申请域名啊?谢谢
    另外,看到你说有镜像,但是要给你发uid,uid是啥?:P
    best regards

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      可能是dns缓存的问题。用nslookup命令查询一下。
      uid是阿里云的uid

      • app
        app发布于: 

        最后加装ssl以后就可以解析了,云里雾里的。

  7. 一曲长歌辞烟雨
    一曲长歌辞烟雨发布于: 

    配置完成了aria2和nextcloud.
    个人的需求是离线下载+文件管理服务,用的Aria2来接管下载的那一部分,nextcloud来管理文件。(用nextcloud的原因是支持webdav和手机APP)
    用aria2直接下载了一个文件到nextcloud的用户文件保存目录。但遇到了如下问题:
    1.文件确实存在于nextcloud用户的文件目录
    2.但nextcloud的文件页面无法看到aria所下载的文件…也就是nextcloud对于不是在nextcloud上传的多文件不显示?
    我选择nextcloud的原因是webdav和手机APP,但是如今这种情况让我必须抉择是否应该换用芒果云,毕竟不显示文件的硬伤给我造成了诸多不便。
    在此想问一下博主有没有让nextcloud显示文件的方法呢?

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      这个只能让Nextcloud每次都重新扫描Data目录,参见:https://www.orgleaf.com/2400.html。看怎么处理,我没用过Aria2,你可以在下载命令后面跟一行OCC,例如:aria2c http://example.org/mylinux.iso && sudo -u www-data php /var/www/html/occ files:scan --all,这样Aria2完成下载后会紧跟着扫描文件。

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      另外问一下交换友链不?

  8. ben
    ben发布于: 

    可以 教我下怎么 链接google drive吗?
    一直显示redirect url mismatch
    弄了一个下午也不知道怎么回事
    希望能收到你的回信 指导下 我
    谢谢

    • FrankGreg
      FrankGreg发布于: 

      可以参考一下这篇文章:ownCloud连接GoogleDrive教程。看你的情况应该是回调地址设置错误:如果你的ownCloud要通过http://example.com/owncloud/ 来访问,那么回调地址应该是这样的,具体的那篇文章中有说。

      回调地址1:http://example.com/owncloud/index.php/settings/personal
      回调地址2:http://example.com/owncloud/index.php/settings/admin

      • nec
        nec发布于: 

        你好 我就是按照教程做的 还是显示同样的错误 能帮我设置下吗 这都搞了我一个周末了

        • FrankGreg
          FrankGreg发布于: 

          我最近有考试的~比较忙。过段时间再帮你解决吧~不好意思

        • FrankGreg
          FrankGreg发布于: 

          问题解决方案已在那篇文章的最后更新。

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